RITUAL MENUMBAI ORANG PETALANGAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF LINGUISTIK ANTROPOLOGIS

Imelda Yance(1*),


(1) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kajian ini berfokus pada ritual menumbai yang dilakukan oleh Orang Petalangan, salah satu suku asli di Provinsi Riau. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mendeskripsikan bentuk dan makna leksikon, fungsi dan sistem kognisi Orang Petalangan yang tercermin dalam ritual tersebut.Kajian ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan linguistik antropologis dan metode kualitatif-deskriptif. Dari hasil analisis data terungkap bahwa ritual menumbai terekam dalam sejumlah leksikon budaya berupa kata dan kelompok kata, kata asal dan kata turunan, bersifat denotatif dan konotatif. Leksikon tersebut menjadi indeks dan simbol dalam pengungkapan realitas budaya Orang Petalangan baik dalam wujud benda, cara hidup, maupun cara berpikir. Ritual menumbai berfungsi untuk meminta petunjuk, menghormati, memberi tahu, menghipnotis, membujuk, memohon izin, meminta perlindungan, meminta berbohong, mengingatkan, menggambarkan keberadaan, memuji, mengusir, mongonsentrasikan pikiran, mengutarakan keinginan, pamit, dan menghibur. Secara umum, semua fungsi tersebut bersifat produktif dan protektif. Sistem kognisi Orang Petalangan yang tercermin dalam ritual menumbai terkait dengan religi, alam gaib, manusia, dan lingkungan.

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This study focused on the menumbai ritual performed by Petalangan People, one of the indigenous people in Riau Province. The study was conducted to describe the shape and meaning of the lexicon, function and cognition system of Petalangan People which is reflected in the ritual. The study was conducted with an anthropological linguistic approach and a qualitative-descriptive method. The findings obtained from the data analysis show that the ritual is recorded in a number of cultural lexicons such as word and word group, base and derivative words, denotative and connotative. The lexicon is an index and symbol in the cultural expression of Petalangan People both in the form of things, way of life and way of thinking. Theritual serves to ask for clues, to respect, to tell, to hypnotize, to persuade, to ask permission, to ask for protection, to ask for lies, to remind, to describe existence, to praise, to expel, to concentrate thoughts, to express desires, to say goodbye and to comfort. In general, all of these functions are productive and protective. The Petalangan cognition system is reflected in the ritual associated with religi, the occult, human and the environment.


Keywords


menumbai; Orang Petalangan; tradisi suku asli Riau; linguistik antropologis

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