GALLANT BRITISH-INDIANS, VIOLENT INDONESIANS: BRITISHINDONESIAN CONFLICT IN TWO BRITISH NEWSPAPERS, THE FIGHTING COCK AND EVENING NEWS (1945-1946)

Muhammad Yuanda Zara(1*),


(1) Researcher at NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, and PhD Candidate at the University of Amsterdam
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


No longer after Sukarno proclaimed Indonesian independence, British and Indian troops were deployed in Indonesia to disarm Japanese troops and evacuate prisoners of war and internees. British arrival was initially welcomed by nationalist Indonesians. Yet, clashes with armed Indonesians occured when the British were considered by nationalist Indonesians as supporting the restoration of Dutch colonial power. In order to campaign their policies, British military in Jakarta published two English languange newspapers, The Fighting Cock dan Evening News. This article analyzes how both newspapers were run and how they reported political and military developments in Indonesia. The main themes I explore are reports about the newspapers justification on British presence in Indonesia, violence committed by Indonesians, British and Indian troops' heroism, and the British troops' victories.

Tidak lama setelah Sukarno memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia, pasukan Inggris dan India dikirim ke Indonesia untuk melucuti pasukan Jepang dan menyelamatkan tawanan perang dan interniran. Awalnya kedatangan Inggris disambut baik oleh golongan nasionalis Indonesia. Namun, pertempuran dengan pihak Indonesia mulai terjadi saat Inggris dianggap mendukung kembalinya kolonialisme Belanda. Dalam rangka mengkampanyekan kebijakan-kebijakannya, militer Inggris di Jakarta menerbitkan dua surat kabar, yakni The Fighting Cock dan Evening News. Tulisan ini menganalisa bagaimana kedua surat kabar tersebut dikelola dan bagaimana mereka melaporkan berbagai perkembangan politik dan militer di Indonesia. Tema utama yang dibahas adalah bagaimana laporan mereka menjustifikasi kehadiran Inggris di Indonesia, kekerasan yang dilakukan pihak Indonesia, heroisme pasukan Inggris dan India, dan kemenangan yang diraih pasukan Inggris.


Keywords


British; Indonesian independence; conflict; newspapers

References


Newspaper

Evening News (Jakarta), 1945, 1946

The Fighting Cock (Jakarta), 1945, 1946

Books and articles

Anderson, Benedict R.O'G. 1972. Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance 1944-1946. Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Cribb, Robert. 1991. Gangsters and Revolutionaries: The Jakarta's People Militia and the Indonesian Revolution, 1945-1949. Sydney:Allen and Unwin

Doulton, A.J.F. 1951. The Fighting Cock: Being the History of the 23rd Indian Division, 1942-1947. Aldershot: Gale & Polden Limited

Jeffreys, Allan. 2003. British Infantryman in the Far East, 1941-1945. Wellingborough: Osprey

Kahin, George McTurnan. 1955. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Luto, James. 2013. Fighting with the Fourtenth Army in Burma: Original war summaries of the battles against Japan, 1943-1945. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military

Mcmillan, Richard. 2005. The British Occupation of Indonesia 1945-1946: Britain, the Netherlands and the Indonesian revolution. Abingdon: Routledge Mcmillan, Richard, 'British military intelligence in Java and Sumatra, 1945-46', in Indonesia and the Malay World, Vol. 37, No. 107, March 2009

Reid, Anthony. 1974. The Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1950. Hawthorn: Longman

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Suwirta, Andi. 2000. Suara dari Dua Kota: Revolusi Indonesia dalam Pandangan Surat Kabar “Merdeka” (Jakarta) dan “Kedaulatan Rakjat” (Yogyakarta) 1945-1947. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka

Zara, M.Y., 2014. '”Trust Me, This News is Indeed True': Representations of Violence in Indonesian Newspapers during the Indonesian Revolution', in Colonial Counterinsurgency and mass violence: the Dutch empire in Indonesia, Bart Luttikhuis and Dirk Moses (eds.). London and NewYork: Rouledge

Zuhdi, S. 1992, 'Perjanjian Linggarjati dilihat oleh beberapa surat kabar lokal di Jawa', in Menelusuri Jalur Linggarjati, A.B. Lapian & P.J. Drooglever (eds.). Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti


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